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Southern Asia / Bangladesh

Summary

Sanitation Verdict 10/20
Water Verdict 18/20
WASH % of gov. budget N/A
Key Facts
HDI Position (UNDP) 146/187
Population (millions, World Bank) 150
Child mortality rate (UNICEF) 47/1000
Annual child diarrhoea deaths (UNICEF) 8,230

The majority of data on this country page was provided by Zach White from WaterAid zachwhite@wateraid.org

Sanitation Policy

(Monitoring the SACOSAN declarations)

Last edited by Zach White at WaterAid 5 months ago

See regional summary

Key:

2
= Good progress
1
= Some progress
0
= No progress
n/a
= Don't know
Category Criteria Rating Justification
Verdict (out of 20) 10
Policy Is there one national plan and policy to meet the sanitation MDG target? 1

Government organized BanglaSan and declared statements to prepare an action plan. However, no action plan has been prepared.

Is sanitation recognised as a human right, and are there specific initiatives are focusing on women and marginalised groups? 1

Rights to water and sanitation are not directly addressed in constitution (indirectly through rights to health and life) - no visible effort to include them yet. In the Government’s “Pro-Poor Strategy”, one of the four eligibility criteria is used to identify hardcore poor household.

Have specific actions have been taken to improve the working conditions of sanitary workers? 0

Still no significant action has been taken.

Institutions Is there a clear institutional home taking leadership on sanitation? 2

The Local Government Division (LGD) is responsible for overall planning, identification of investment projects and coordination of activities of agencies under it.

Is there one coordinating body for sanitation involving all stakeholders? 1

There is an alliance among FANSA-Bangladesh, WaterAid and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCCC) which coordinate with the government for progress monitoring.

Is there a plan for sanitation sector capacity development, especially of local governments? 1
Finance Is there a public sector budget line for sanitation, and an investment plan to fund it? 1

The Government has a sector financing plan but budget is not adequate. Though Sector Development Plan has a financing plan but the sectoral budget never follows it.

Is adequate priority given to sanitation within national development plans? 1

Bangladesh Government organized BanglaSan- a National Sanitation Conference in January 2011 to prepare an action plan at the national level to ensure hygienic sanitation for all. Government’ Election Manifesto states about the aim to provide “Sanitation for all by 2013”.

Has sanitation been sufficiently integrated into policies for (i) health, and (ii) emergencies? 1

(i) there is a Draft Health Policy where sanitation is addressed but no action has been taken as it has not yet been approved. (ii) National Sanitation Policy addresses emergency measures to address sanitation issues during disasters, but during disasters sanitation still gets little priority.

Monitoring Is there a sanitation performance monitoring system? 1

There is a performance monitoring mechanism but it is not effective. But bilateral and multilateral projects have their own monitoring mechanisms as per project requirements. MIS is there but not adequate.

Verdict (out of 20) 10

Water Policy

See regional summary

Key:

2
= Good progress
1
= Some progress
0
= No progress
n/a
= Don't know
Category Criteria Rating Justification
Verdict (out of 20) 18
Policy Is there a comprehensive policy for water supply? 2

There is. There is. The National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation was adopted by the Government of Bangladesh in 1998 and is the most comprehensive policy document governing water supply and sanitation sector. The policy mentions that the Government’s goal is to ensure that all people have access to safe water and sanitation services at an affordable cost. The policy emphasizes elements of behavioral changes and sustainability through user participation in planning, implementation, management, and cost sharing. Ensuring the installation of one sanitary latrine in each household in the rural areas and improving public health standard through inculcating the habit of proper use of sanitary latrines is mentioned as one of the objectives. In addition, there is the National Water Policy 1999 and National Water Management Plan 2004. The National water policy, promulgated in 1999 provides policy direction for the entire water sector. The goal of the national water policy is to address issues related to the harnessing and development of all forms of surface water and groundwater and management of these resources in an efficient and equitable manner. In line with the National Water Policy 1999, the national water management plan 2004 has been prepared envisaging, inter alia, access to appropriate sanitation to all by 2010 and has also made a provision for waterborne sanitation and storm water drainage in major cities. Also it has proposed resource allocation to achieve time bound targets.

Is there a plan for meeting the water MDG target or equivalent? 2

There is a Plan for implementing the policy but with very little progress.

Are there specific measures in the plan for targeting poor people, and addressing the interests of women? 2

There is the Pro-poor Strategy where the interest of the poor and marginalised and gender focus has been addressed. The Pro-poor Strategy for water and sanitation services has been developed in recognition of two major needs. Firstly, there is a need for ‘direct attack on poverty’ as the benefits of growth are not distributed equitably. Secondly, the National Policy for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation, 1998 provides for a ‘safety-net’ for hardcore poor in conjunction with reducing subsidies over time.

The strategy provides operational definition of Hardcore poor households and Basic Minimum Level of Service. For sanitation the strategy states that the WatSan Committees will perform the job of identifying households who do not have the Basic Minimum Service Level (BMSL).

Institutions Is there a lead ministry responsible for water supply? 2

The Local Government Division under the Ministry of Local Government, Rural Development and Cooperatives (LGRD&C)is responsible for serving the purpose.However, as mentioned earlier in the case of Sanitation, leadership issues need to be strengthened in the Division where it can, as per expectations, do a lot more.

Is there clear separation of institutional roles? 2

Clear separation of key institutional roles is identified within the Sector like the Local Government Division, Department of Public Health Engineering, the Local Government Engineering Division, City Corporations and Municipalities, the Water and Sewerage Authorities in Dhaka, Chittagong and Khulna Cities, etc. but effective coordination among these institutions is a considerable concern.

Is there provision within the policy for water supply sector capacity development? 2

There is provision on the subject but as was mentioned in the case of Sanitation, little is done as per plan or outline agreed to before.

Are donors harmonising their support behind national sector plans? 1

The Sector is mainly supported by multilateral agencies like UNICEF, IDA, ADB, WSP-World Bank and WHO and bilaterally by DFID, DANIDA, JICA and the Dutch Government and a few more International NGOs like WaterAid, CARE and Plan Bangladesh. Support for projects in Pourashava (Municipal) towns has been given bilaterally by Danida, the Netherlands, and JICA of Japan, and multilaterally by the Asian Development Bank. Assistance has been extended to Dhaka and Chittagong by IDA, Danida, JICA, JBIC and by the Asian Development Bank. However, in terms of harminising of efforts, much more is expected.

Finance Is there a sector investment plan for water supply? 2

The Policy Support Unit (PSU) under LGD is presently preparing a new Sector Development Plan (SDP) and Sector Investment Plan (SIP) for the WSS Sector and is coordinating various initiatives in the sector in collaboration with GoB and DPs. A National Forum for Water Supply and Sanitation is chaired by the LGD Secretary with representation of other ministries, departments and DPs.

Are actors responsible for delivering water supply services adequately resourced, particularly if local governments? 2

As per the National Budget it is so. However, as far as the LGIs are concerned, there are issues that need to be resolved. Although the Government expects mostly the LGIs to take up leadership for water and sanitation activities, present skill and capacity levels hardly permit these to be performed realistically and the Government also needs to come out with effective guidelines and plans to realise these.Although there is the National Institute for Local Governmenet charged with capacity building of the Local Government Insitutions, as far as water and sanitation are concerned, much needs to be done in this direction.

Monitoring Is there an effective framework for performance monitoring? 1

Yes, but considerable scope of improvement on the subject exists in order to make the reports of this monitoring more practical and acceptable.

Verdict (out of 20) 18

WASH Finance

Gov. WASH Budget (local currency, millions)

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Gov. WASH Budget as % of total budget

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Financial indicators 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Gov. WASH Budget as % of total budget 9.33 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Gov. WASH budget as % of GDP 0.209 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Gov. WASH budget (current $US, millions) 187 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Gov. WASH Budget (local currency, millions) 12,900 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Gov. budget for sanitation only (local currency, millions) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Total Gov. budget (local currency, millions) 138,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A
GDP (current $US, millions, IMF) 89,400 100,000 111,000 111,000 111,000
Average $US exchange rate for that year (xe.com) 69 69.6 74.2 74.2 74.2
Download Spreadsheet (csv) Read more about how this data is collected and calculated

Bangladesh: Access To WASH in 2011 (JMP 2013)

Water Sanitation
83% 55%

There are a number of ways to measure the proportion of people that have access to sanitation and water in a country. Governments often use a combination of management information systems and household surveys.

The official data which the UN uses to monitor progress on the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) comes from the WHO / UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). JMP aggregates data from household surveys carried out by governments.

WASHwatch.org shows JMP data because it is comparable across countries and uses the MDG definitions of access to sanitation and water. Some Governments prefer to quote the latest data from their household surveys, the best source of this information is the national statistics bureau or equivalent.

Read more about Monitoring Access

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