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Southern Africa / Zambia


Sanitation Verdict 8/20
Water Verdict 15/20
WASH % of gov. budget N/A
Key Facts
HDI Position (UNDP) 163/187
Population (millions, World Bank) 13.5
Child mortality rate (UNICEF) 111/1000
Annual child diarrhoea deaths (UNICEF) 5,720

The majority of data on this country page was provided by Nancy Mukumbuta from WaterAid Zambia

Sanitation Policy

(Monitoring the eThekwini declaration)

Last edited by Zach White at WaterAid 6 months ago

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= Good progress
= Some progress
= No progress
= Don't know
Category Criteria Rating Justification
Verdict (out of 20) 8
Policy Did they sign eThekwini? 0

An authorized government officia\ was not present to swgn at the time. Signed M Nevertheless the government has adopted the document

Is there a national sanitation policy? 1

2013 trafficlight score: 0.44/1 Previous assessment: (1) The poiicy development process ongoing and >5 part of the overall Water Policy. Major achievements have been the inclusion of separate sanitation components in the National Rural and Urban Programmes detailing activities and budgets including targets

Is there one national sanitation plan to meet the MDG target? 2

2013 trafficlight score: 0.69/1 Previous assessment: (2)there is one framework for sanitation within national programmes

Institutions What profile is given to sanitation within the PRSP? 1

2013 trafficlight score: 0.62/1 Previous assessment: (2)Under the SNDP (2011-2015). Water supply and sanitation is a priority sector

Is there one coordinating body involving all stakeholders? 1

2013 trafficlight score: 0.38/1 Previous assessment: (2)There is one coordinating body National Water Supply and Sanitation Steering Committee with the MLGH as chair institution and secretariat

Is there a principal accountable institution to take leadership? 2

2013 trafficlight score: 0.82/1 Previous assessment: (2)The Ministry of Local Government and Housing (MLGH) is the key institution responsible for taking leadership for the sector

Finance Is there a specific public sector budget line for sanitation? 0

2013 trafficlight score:0/1 Previous assessment: (2)There is complete budget component for both rurai and urban sanitation

Is 0.5% of GDP allocated to sanitation? N/A

Previous assessment: (0)Government has been making incrementat adjustment towards meeting the target and has now reached 3% of the national budget. However, the total allocated to water supply and sanitation does not come close to 0.5% of GDP. It is unlikely that this target be met

Is there a sanitation monitoring and evaluation (M+E) system? 0

2013 trafficlight score:0.27/1 Previous assessment: (1)urban NIS is in place and rural IMS is in process

Monitoring Do institutional sanitation programs include gender aspects? 1

2013 trafficlight score:0.52/1 Previous assessment: (2)appropriate technology has been adopted

Verdict (out of 20) 8

Water Policy

(Monitoring the Sharm el-Sheikh declaration)

Last edited by Nancy Mukumbuta at WaterAid Zambia 9 months ago

See regional summary


= Good progress
= Some progress
= No progress
= Don't know
Category Criteria Rating Justification
Verdict (out of 20) 15
Policy Is there a comprehensive policy for water supply? 2

Yes, there is the Water Policy of 1994 and an update to the WSS Policy has been done and ratified by parliament in 2010.

Is there a plan for meeting the water MDG target or equivalent? 2

Yes the government has developed both the Urban Water supply and Sanitation and Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes to address the national universal coverage targets including the MDGs.

Are there specific measures in the plan for targeting poor people, and addressing the interests of women? 0

No, there are no specific measures but the programmes (urban and rural) accommodate the vulnerable members of the community through waiving Operation and Maintenence (O&M) and other fees on a case by case basis

Institutions Is there a lead ministry responsible for water supply? 2

Yes, the Ministry of Local Government and Housing (MLGH), Department of Housing and Infrastructure Development, is mandated to carry out the WSS functions.

Is there clear separation of institutional roles? 2

Yes, MLGH is mandated to carry out the WSS function while the Ministry of Energy and Water Development (MEWD)is mandated to carry out Integrated Water Resources Management functions.

Are donors harmonising their support behind national sector plans? 2

Donors have formed a forum at which support to the WSS is harmonised and progress discussed under the JASZ framework.

Is there provision within the policy for water supply sector capacity development? 1

Under the urban and rural programmes, there are very strong components and budgets for capacity building of the sector at all levels

Finance Is there a sector investment plan for water supply? 2

Yes, the Urban and Rural WSS Programmes

Are actors responsible for delivering water supply services adequately resourced, particularly if local governments? 1

Resources are allocated to the sector but are not enough to meet all the targets.Further institutional resources are required for effective implementation at all levels

Monitoring Is there an effective framework for performance monitoring? 1

The framework is being finalised and rolled out to all districts. The challenge is institutionalising it at all levels with the requisite resources.

Verdict (out of 20) 15

WASH Finance

Gov. WASH Budget (local currency, millions)

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Gov. WASH Budget as % of total budget

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Financial indicators 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Gov. WASH Budget as % of total budget 1.4 2.59 2.7 N/A N/A
Gov. WASH budget as % of GDP 0.332 0.558 0.595 N/A N/A
Gov. WASH budget (current $US, millions) 42.5 90.4 114 N/A N/A
Gov. WASH Budget (local currency, millions) 214,000 434,000 555,000 N/A N/A
Gov. budget for sanitation only (local currency, millions) N/A N/A 7,940 N/A N/A
Total Gov. budget (local currency, millions) 15,300,000 16,700,000 20,500,000 N/A N/A
GDP (current $US, millions, IMF) 12,800 16,200 19,200 19,200 19,200
Average $US exchange rate for that year ( 5,050 4,800 4,860 4,860 4,860
Download Spreadsheet (csv) Read more about how this data is collected and calculated


Information was derived from the 2011 budget speech, and Yellow book for sanitation. There are other major budget lines that do not disaggregate sanitation. The National Urban and Peri Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Programme whose budget is K56Bn, and also Water Supply and Sanitation Unit has a budget of K0.7357Bn, and we also know from other sources that Support to Nkana Water of K110Bn includes a substantial urban sanitation component. Other notable lines include National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme, K166.3bn, to Urban Water Supply and Sanitation, K97.8 bn to other water infrastructure development programmes and K98.3bn to other urban towns.

Zambia: Access To WASH in 2011 (JMP 2013)

Water Sanitation
64% 42%

There are a number of ways to measure the proportion of people that have access to sanitation and water in a country. Governments often use a combination of management information systems and household surveys.

The official data which the UN uses to monitor progress on the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) comes from the WHO / UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). JMP aggregates data from household surveys carried out by governments. shows JMP data because it is comparable across countries and uses the MDG definitions of access to sanitation and water. Some Governments prefer to quote the latest data from their household surveys, the best source of this information is the national statistics bureau or equivalent.

Read more about Monitoring Access